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Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle Cell Anemia is a hereditary illness where the body’s red blood cells are shaped in an unusual crescent form. The effects of it can require hospitalization as painful episodes (known as crises) occur in the chest, back or long bones of the sufferer. All individuals with this disease will require ongoing treatment to treat their illness in a timely manner. This illness most commonly occurs in people of African heritage.

Symptoms include pain in the abdomen, difficulty breathing, delayed growth, constant fatigue, fever, pale complexion, leg ulcers and heart palpitations. Since frequent attacks can cause work-impairing disability for the sufferer, those with regular episodes of severe pain may qualify for social security disability as part of their illness.

Treating this illness often involves regular blood transfusions and antibiotics to prevent infection. Pain relief drugs are usually administered during a Crisis. Transplants and surgery can help treat the disease and highly risky bone marrow transplants can completely cure the illness. Because of the risks of marrow rejection, expenses and difficulty obtaining bone marrow most individuals never opt for attempting a cure and simply perform ongoing symptom treatment.

Sickle Cell Anemia is caused when the oxygen-carrying protein, hemoglobin, is shaped irregularly in a person’s blood cells. This irregular shape can cause the cells difficulty passing through some veins and makes them extremely fragile. The delicate nature and easy breaking of these cells through smaller blood vessels can result in the need for a constant recreation of the cells. Although this disease is hereditary, not all carriers of the gene will develop sickle cells. Despite this, the illness can still be passed down to the next generation.

You can test for Sickle Cell Anemia by Complete Blood Count, Hemoglobin electrophoresis or Sickle cell test. Blood oxygen, CT scan and MRI tests can also help diagnose the illness. Death from this disease is usually caused by organ failure or infection. With modern medical advances, patients with this illness can easily live into their fifties or beyond.

Preventing a Sickle Cell Anemia Crisis requires avoiding strenuous physical activity, stress, high altitude environments with low oxygen and smoking. Regular fluid consumption is required to help combat the sickling of blood cells. Due to the elevated dangers of infection, it is also imperative that a Sickle Cell Anemia sufferer is up to date on their vaccinations and takes precautions to avoid exposure to illness carrying germs and parasites.…

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Pruritus Causes

Pruritus Causes

Do you know what the term pruritus means? It’s a medical word that refers to itching. Now that you’re more familiar with it, you probably already have some ideas of what might cause this symptom. In this article, a couple of pruritus causes are mentioned — perhaps you hadn’t associated them with it yet.


Is this one a bit of a surprise? Having diabetes may lead a person to experience pruritus. That, however, is just one of the symptoms of this condition. For instance, there may be rashes that show up on the patient. He may have a level of thirst that is raised beyond where it usually is at. Other symptoms may also exist.

Did you know that there are multiple kinds of diabetes? Types 1 and 2 may be more frequently known. In the past they were commonly known, respectively, as juvenile and adult-onset diabetes. In the former, there is a deficiency of insulin. In the latter, that may exist, but it is characterized by a resistance to insulin. Another kind of diabetes is the gestational form, which occurs in women who are pregnant, and had not previously been diagnosed with any type of this disease.

Iron deficiency anemia

This may be a bit of a shocker, as well. This form of anemia occurs where the person has a level of iron that is low. Pruritus may be present in patient with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Losing hair is another potential symptom of this condition. Muscle twitching might also happen. The skin may be pale — this is referred to as pallor.

A variety of medical causes can lead to a case of IDA in a patient. One possibility is if a patient has intestinal bleeding. In some cases, the person simply doesn’t ingest enough of this mineral in his diet to meet the body’s needs. When that is the case, the doctor may suggest a diet higher in iron, with more foods like beans. The doctor may also recommend supplements in some cases where they may be considered safe and useful. If the medical cause is something else, then the treatment might be completely different.…

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Dimorphic Anemia Made Simple

Dimorphic Anemia Made Simple

Dimorphic anemia is a condition that affects millions on a worldwide basis. Medical professionals often agree that this is one of the more challenging types of anemia due to the fact that it consists of two individual causes. When these causes collaborate, the blood disorder occurs.

There are many different causes of standard anemia, and this particular type combines two of those causes. Common reasons why Anemia develops include, but are not at all limited to, deficiencies in iron, certain vitamins, and several minerals. In some cases, it is induced by alcohol abuse and as a result of taking certain medication.

The Symptoms

There are several symptoms of Dimorphic Anemia that only doctors may be able to identify. This is because anemia diagnostic tools must be used in order to examine the red blood cells in the body. When a person has this condition, the medical professional will discover that there are many different sizes associated with the red blood cells.

They may also be able to determine the condition by evaluating the oxygen levels in the body, determining if the heartbeat is irregular or not, complications associated with breathing difficulties, and even determining if the skin is cold and/or changing colors. The symptoms that a person will experience directly and may observe without diagnostic tools include sleep complication, concentration issues, and even pain like headaches.


When it comes to medical treatments for dimorphic anemia, most medical professionals will work to create what is missing from the body. Seeing that deficiencies in minerals as well as vitamins are a common culprit, many may suggest taking additional supplements of the substance the body is missing.

There are some doctors that may suggest adjusting the diet to ensure that all essentials are obtained from the body as far as nutrition. This type of anemia may be challenging to live with on a day to day basis, but treatments will assist in soothing the symptoms associated with Dimorphic Anemia.…

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Megaloblastic Anemia Causes and Treatment

Megaloblastic Anemia Causes and Treatment

Megaloblastic anemia is an anemic condition which is caused by a deficiency in folic acid, vitamin B12 or a combination of the two. When the human body is lacking these substances the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy or normal red blood cells and produces red blood cells which are immature and larger than normal cells.

These cells also tend to die earlier than the one hundred and twenty days which healthy red blood cells normally live. This results the condition of anemia due to an insufficient amount of red cells in the body which are needed to distribute oxygen throughout our body.

Potential Causes of Megaloblastic Anemia

Megaloblastic anemia can be caused by numerous conditions that result in the folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency in the body. Alcoholism can be one of those conditions as alcohol interferes with the foliate metabolism in the liver which can deplete the body of folic acid. The most common cause of megaloblastic anemia in children is a vitamin deficiency.

Other common causes of this anemia are due to digestive problems which prevent the body from absorbing a sufficient amount these vitamins as well as certain medications which interfere with the absorption of folic acid. A folic acid deficiency is also common during pregnancy which can cause the mother to become anemic as well as the newborn baby. In some cases this condition during pregnancy may result in a birth defect which is called spina bifida.

Treatment of Megaloblastic Anemia

Treatment typically consists of taking supplements of folic acid or the B12 vitamin as well as treating any underlying digestive problems which may be causing the deficiency. These supplements are taken until the vitamins reach a sufficient level in the body which is typically within three months time.

There are many foods which contain folic acid as well such as oranges, liver, rice, green leafy vegetables, and wheat germ. Foods which contain vitamin B12 include poultry, dairy products, fortified cereals, and shellfish.…

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Clinical Effects of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)

Clinical Effects of Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)

The kidneys are able to maintain the chemical composition of fluids within normal limits until more than 50% of functional renal capacity is destroyed by diseases or injury. Chronic renal insufficiency or failure begins when the diseased kidneys can no longer maintain normal chemical structure of body fluids under normal conditions. Progressive deterioration over months or years produces a variety of clinical syndrome known as Uremia. The pattern of renal dysfunction is remarkably uniform no matter what disease process initiates the advanced disease. Renal vascular disorders such as hemolytic-Uremic syndrome, vascular thrombosis, or cortical necrosis are less frequent causes.

Diagnostic criteria

1. Clinical

• Tiredness, fatigue, headache, loss of appetite, vomiting,

• PolyUria, nicturia, polydypsia, bone and joint pains, retardation of growth, dryness and itching of skin

• Muscular convulsions, paresthesias, signs of sensor or motor neuropathy

• Heart failure and hemodynamic disorders

2. Laboratory;

• Decrease of glomerular filtration rate

• Metabolic acidosis

• Anemia

• Decrease of thrombocytes’ adhesion

• Heperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hypoproteinemia, hyperuricemia

• Isostenuria

• Renal osteordystrophy

• X-ray examination of the chest may reveal cardiomegaly, hypertrophy of the left ventricle, aortectasia, lung’s edema, pleural exudates.

Causes of chronic renal failure

1. (a) Glomerular diseases

• Of unknown etiology

• Associated wirh systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), poly-arteritis nodosa

• Henoch-schonlein vasculitis

(b) Familial nephropathy

• Nephronophthisis

• Alport’s syndrome

(c) Hemolytic Uremic syndrome

(d) Amyloidosis

2. Congenital anomalies

• Bilateral renal dysplasia

• Congenital nephritic syndrome

• Polycystic kidney

Clinical manifestations

The first evidence of difficulty is usually loss of normal energy and increased fatigue on exertion. For example, the child may prefer quiet, passive activities rather than participation in more active games and outdoor play. The child is usually somewhat pale, but it is often so inconspicuous that the change may not be evident to parents or others. Sometimes the blood pressure is elevated. As the disease progresses, other manifestations may appear. The child eats less well (especially breakfast), shows less interest in normal activities, such as schoolwork or play, and has an increased urinary output and a compensatory intake of fluid. For example, a previously dry child may wet the bed at night. Pallor becomes more evident as the skin develops a characteristic sallow, muddy appearance as the result of anemia and deposition of Urochrome pigment in the skin. The child may complain of headache, muscle cramps, and nausea, Other signs and symptoms include weight loss, facial puffiness, malaise, bone of joint pain, growth retardation, dryness or itching of the skin, bruised skin, and sometimes sensory or motor loss. Amenorrhea is common in adolescent girls.

The therapy is generally instigated before the appearance of the Uremic syndrome, although there are occasions in which the symptoms may be observed. Manifestations of untreated Uremia reflect the progressive nature of the hemeostatic disturbances and general toxicity. Gastrointestinal symptoms include anorexia and nausea and vomiting. Bleeding tendencies are apparent in bruises, bloody diarrheal stools, stomatitis and bleeding from lips and mouth. There is intractable itching, probably related to hyperparathyroidism, and deposits of Urea crystals appear on the skin as “Uremic frost”/ There may be an unpleasant “Uremic” odor to the breath. Respiratons become deeper as a result of metabolic acidosis, and circulatory overload is manifest by hypertension, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary edema. Neurologic involvement is reflected by progressive confusion, dulling of sensorium, and, ultimately, coma. Other signs may include tremors, muscular twitching and seizures.…

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Prevent Side Effects During Chemotherapy

Prevent Side Effects During Chemotherapy

Nausea and vomiting

If nausea occurs during the morning, try eating dry foods like cereal, toast or crackers before you get out of bed;

Eat foods cold or at room temperature;

Drink liquids at least an hour before or after a meal and not during the meal;

Do not eat sweet foods, fried or high in fat;

Suck ice cubes, mints;

Chew thoroughly to digest more easily;

Avoid odors that bother you;

Wear loose clothing.

Hair loss

Use soft brushes;

Use a shampoo not too strong;

Do not dry hair at high temperatures;

Use a sunscreen for UV protection, a hat or scarf to protect your scalp from the sun.

Anemia and fatigue

Follow a balanced diet;

Do not be afraid to ask for help when you need;

Limit your activities, do only what is most important;

When you stand up or in bed, do this as slowly to avoid dizziness.


Not irritated the acne;

Will not cut cuticles;

Wash your hands as often as possible during the day;

Use a soft toothbrush will not hurt gums;

Wash the rectal area in a gentle way, carefully after each use of toilet,

Use lotions or oils to soften your skin and heal it when it dries;

Make showers and bathrooms warm, not hot, every day and dry your skin with delicate gestures;

Stay away from people with contagious diseases such as colds, measles, swine flu;

Stay away from children who were recently immunized with vaccines against polio, chickenpox, mumps, rubella;

Use protective gloves when doing work on the garden or cleaning the house or when you clean the remnants of animals or children.

Blood clotting problems

Do not drink alcohol;

Use a soft toothbrush;

Avoid contact sports that involve other activities that could hurt you;

Not take any kind of drugs before asking your doctor.


Avoid milk and dairy products;

Eat small amounts of food but eat more often;

Eat foods rich in potassium: bananas, oranges, potatoes, peaches and apricot nectar

Avoid coffee, tea, alcohol and sweets, fried foods, fatty;

If diarrhea is severe, it is essential to tell the doctor because you will need infusion to replace lost water and nutrients;

Eat low-fiber foods such as white bread, rice and noodles, coated cereals, ripe bananas, fruit, cottage cheese, yogurt, eggs, mashed potatoes or baked potatoes, mashed vegetables, chicken or turkey.

Following these precautions will help you during the Chemotherapy surgery.…

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1000 Calorie Diet – Why This Diet Is Unhealthy

1000 Calorie Diet – Why This Diet Is Unhealthy

Unless you are under a doctor’s care, one thousand calories per day is a dangerous thing to do. Our bodies were designed to require a certain amount, and is quite capable of going automatically changing metabolic rate if we consistently consume too few of them.

Deficiency Problems: Anemia, easy bruising and other problems are likely to occur when calorie counts are low. Some may be caused by lack of the nutrients in your diet, but others may be caused by lack of fat consumption. Our bodies require some fat in the diet or fat soluble vitamins cannot be absorbed, even if you are taking a supplement to prevent the other problems.

Eating Disorders: Anorexia and bulimia are the two best known eating disorders, but others exist. The poor self image most of us have as the pounds add up can contribute to these problems. Compound that with inadequate caloric consumption and the risk factors add up fast.

Famine Mode: If you’ve ever been on an extreme diet, you may have noticed some real difficulties about two weeks into it. Oh, the first set of pounds come off fairly quickly, but then it stops, almost over night. That’s because your automatically sent into famine mode. Your body will hang on to every calorie it gets. You may even find yourself gaining weight. This can set you up for a spiraling cycle that has you eating less and less.

Lack of Energy: This has been one side effect of extreme dieting I hate. When I was using this method, I didn’t want to get up in the morning and every task felt like it was a marathon. It could be from anemia, depression or lack of glucose in the blood stream. The good news is that when I switched, the problem went away.

Low Blood Sugar: A lot of what we eat is turned into glucose by your body. If insufficient amounts are available, you are at risk for developing hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Under the right conditions, this could cause you to pass out.

So, what should you do instead? First, talk to your doctor and a nutritionist. Then you can set up a suitable diet and exercise program. I know it can be done, I’ve lost sixty pounds so far and have another twenty-five to go. If I can do it, you can.…